Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious or corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use. These situations include:
- Areas where corrosive or injurious chemicals are used, such as:
- Solutions of inorganic or organic acids or bases with a pH of 2.0 or less, or 12.5 or more;
- Other organic or inorganic materials that are corrosive or irritating to eyes or skin (e.g., methylene chloride, phenol); or
- Organic or inorganic materials that are significantly toxic by skin absorption (e.g., phenol, hydrazine).
- Areas where corrosive chemicals are used in a closed system that can catastrophically fail and cause the chemicals to leak (i.e., liquid lead-acid battery-charging areas, or areas where pressurized systems with corrosive liquids are used);
- Storage areas where breakable containers of injurious or corrosive materials (> 2.5 liters or ~0.6 gal) are handled outside their original shipping cartons;
- Waste accumulation areas that contain corrosive waste materials;
- Areas where operations involve the use of air or water reactive liquids or solids;
- All open tray film-processing work areas using chemical developers and fixers; and
- Acid washing work areas.
29 CFR 1910.151(c)
8 CCR 5162
8 CCR 5217
22 CCR 66261.22
An emergency shower shall be provided at all work areas where, during normal operations or foreseeable emergencies, areas of the body may come into contact with a substance that is corrosive, severely irritating to the skin, or toxic by skin absorption. An emergency shower shall be provided at all work areas where formaldehyde solutions in concentrations greater than or equal to 1% are handled.
8 CCR 5162(b)
8 CCR 5217(i)(2)
A plumbed eyewash shall be provided for all work areas where, during normal operations or foreseeable emergencies, the eyes of an employee may come into contact with a substance that can cause corrosion, severe irritation, or permanent tissue damage, or is toxic by absorption. A plumbed eyewash shall be provided at all work areas where formaldehyde solutions in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1% are handled.
8 CCR 5162(a)
8 CCR 5217(i)(3)
When chemicals are used in small quantities and the likelihood of exposure is limited, only an eyewash may be required. When the quantities are larger and significant splashing or spraying may occur, a safety shower shall also be required. The area Industrial Hygienist shall make this determination.
8 CCR 5162(a)
8 CCR 5217(i)(3)
Generally, eyewashes are not required in areas where:
- Chemicals are stored in quantities less than 8 ounces (~240 mL) and used at room temperature at a rate of less than 2 ounces (~60 mL) per day. (Note: perchloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, formaldehyde concentrations ≥0.1 %, and the alkali metals and alkali metal compounds are not covered by this exemption.)
- Compounds hazardous to the eye or skin are used in sealed systems at or below atmospheric pressure, and catastrophic failure or leakage is unlikely. However, an eyewash or shower may be appropriate if the system is filled, topped-off, or drained in other than a totally enclosed manner.
- Materials hazardous to the eye or skin are stored in bulk in metal or plastic containers, and are not decanted.