Facilities/Sources Not Covered In Detail By These Recommendations

Though the following facilities/sources are not covered specifically by these recommendations, most of the “General Requirements/Considerations” apply, although additional requirements may also apply. It is important to remember that all facilities with radioactive materials and/or radiation producing machines shall be reviewed and approved by the facility RSO and/or the RSC prior to installation/operation. Due to the many safety and regulatory aspects related to the design, installation, commissioning, and operation of such facilities, early involvement of the facility RSO is advisable. Unanticipated corrective actions can result in unpleasant, unnecessary, and costly delays.

Clinical and Veterinary Facilities:


  • Diagnostic Medical:
    • Radiographic (e.g., fixed, portable, mammography)
    • Fluoroscopic (e.g., fixed, portable)
    • Cine
    • Computed Tomography (CT)
    • Bone density
    • Nuclear medicine imaging
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/CT imaging
  • Diagnostic Dental:
    • Radiographic
    • Cephalometric
    • Panoramic
  • Therapy:
    • Accelerators
    • Brachytherapy sources
    • High Dose Rate (HDR) Afterloaders
    • Gamma Knife
    • Ortho-voltage units
    • Grenz rays
    • Intravascular brachytherapy devices

Some Important Considerations For Facilities/Sources Not Covered In Detail By These Recommendations:

Clinical Facilities shall include these features:

  • Equipment for human use shall meet FDA requirements.
  • Equipment Commissioning: All equipment shall be checked for compliance with regulatory requirements prior to use on patients. Equipment at JCAHO-accredited facilities shall be commissioned by a “Qualified Expert” prior to use.
  • Patient viewing and communication: When patients are being exposed/irradiated, the operator shall have the ability to communicate with and view the patient continuously from an area protected from primary, secondary, and first-scatter radiation (i.e., a controlled area). Exceptions to this general rule are operators of portable diagnostic x-ray equipment used at nonfixed locations, dental x-ray equipment, and most nuclear medicine imaging equipment. For most of these exceptions, the operator shall be at least 6 feet from the source of radiation and out of the primary beam.
  • Warning lights, audible signals, and signs:
    • Areas or rooms that contain permanently installed x-ray machines as the only source of radiation shall be posted with a “CAUTION X-RAY” sign or signs in lieu of other signs required by the 10 CFR, Part 20, Section 20.1902, as incorporated by reference in Section 30253.
    • High-radiation areas caused by radiographic and fluoroscopic machines used solely for the healing arts are exempt from the controls in 10 CFR 20.1601 if they are in compliance with 24 CCR, Chapter 31C, Sections 3101C–3104C.

17 CCR 30305 (c)


For dental radiographic facilities, the ordinary walls in a building (two layers of 5/8- inch drywall) often provide adequate shielding to protect surrounding areas. It should be noted that one of the common layouts for dental equipment puts the head of the dental chair adjacent to central work or patient areas. Unless modified, this common layout can result in the unacceptable practice of exposing the central work or patient areas to unshielded primary radiation. Because of the many variables, the shielding in each dental x-ray room shall be evaluated by the facility RSO or designee.


17 CCR 30311

JCAHO recommendations


Shielding for each veterinary radiographic facility or room shall be evaluated (designed and tested) by the facility RSO or designee. It should be noted that operator control booths are not always required for these facilities.


17 CCR 30314


Provision should be made for storage and inspection of leaded aprons in medical fluoroscopic and cine facilities.


UC Practice


Medical bone density units seldom require operator control booths or additional shielding; however, each unit should be evaluated by the facility RSO or designee.


UC Practice


Filters are required on hospital fume hood exhaust systems for OSHPD 1, 2, 3, and 4 facilities that may release radioactive materials. The filters will have a 99% efficiency based on the DOP test method. Fume hood exhaust ducts will be constructed of stainless steel.


24 CCR 409.4

24 CCR 409.3